For most posts I concentrate on using Python to solve tasks (mostly system administration based). Apart from fringe cases these are not multi-threaded so I can safely ignore Python’s Global Interpreter Lock (normally shortened to GIL). Even when running a web server, it is usually left up to the web framework to handle any multi-threading so again the GIL is safely ignored.
What is the GIL? Firstly this is for CPython, the version of Python you are most likely to be running. Other implementations like Jython, PyPy or IronPython do things differently. It is just a mechanism to marshall access to internals (variables mostly) from different threads. It makes coding involving multiple threads straight forward but means threads in CPython are generally only good for solving blocking I/O.
For a brief but more technical explanation, Vinay Sajip posted a good single paragraph description to the GIL:
“Python’s GIL is intended to serialize access to interpreter internals from different threads. On multi-core systems, it means that multiple threads can’t effectively make use of multiple cores. (If the GIL didn’t lead to this problem, most people wouldn’t care about the GIL – it’s only being raised as an issue because of the increasing prevalence of multi-core systems.) If you want to understand it in detail, you can view this video or look at this set of slides.”
Why my interest? I have just finished reading an article by A. Jesse Jiryu Davis which goes into far more detail about the GIL. If you are planning a C extension, looking at multi-threading some code which shares data or just curious try his Grok the GIL article as a starting point.